How A Bill Becomes Law in New Brunswick – Part I and II of IV
Part I of IV – Definition of a Bill
A Bill is a draft of a legislative proposal, which, when it has been passed by the Legislative Assembly and assented to by the Lieutenant-Governor, will become law.
Bills may originate from either the executive branch of government, the cabinet, from private members of the Legislative Assembly, or from outside persons or bodies.
Part II of IV – Types of Bills
TYPES OF BILLS
In New Brunswick, there are two main types of Bills: Public and Private.
Public Bills relate to matters of public policy and are introduced directly by members of the Legislature. They are Bills which affect the public as a whole. There are two types of Public Bills: Government Bills and Private Members’ Public Bills. Government Bills are those Public Bills introduced by a Minister of the Crown while Private Members’ Public Bills are introduced by private members of the Legislature. In our Legislative Assembly, practically all Public Bills that are introduced are Government Bills though there is nothing to prevent an ordinary member bringing in a Public Bill. However, no such Bill may contain provisions which infringe on the Crown’s prerogative in financial matters. Such Bills can only be introduced by a Minister of the Crown since only Ministers receive the required authority (“Royal Recommendation”) from the Lieutenant-Governor to include in their Bills provisions for raising or spending money.
Private Bills are those relating to private or local matters or for the particular interest or benefit of any person, corporation or municipality. Private Bills are not usually promoted by members of the Legislature, but by outside persons or bodies. They confer special powers upon companies, municipalities and private persons and are not of general public concern.
Because the legislative process of a Private Bill is somewhat different than that of a Public Bill, the following procedure relates only to Public Bills. The procedure applicable to Private Bills and a simplified chart showing the route a Private Bill takes through the New Brunswick Legislature can be found on pages 4 to 6.
A Bill must receive three separate readings on different days before being passed, however, the Standing Rules of the Legislative Assembly make provision for a Bill to be advanced two or more stages in one day with the unanimous consent of the House.
The following depicts the normal procedure whereby a Bill becomes a law.